@article { 6676891, title = {Fast contracting polypyrrole actuators}, journal = {Synth. Met. (Switzerland)}, volume = {113}, number = {1-2}, year = {2000}, note = {polypyrrole;conducting polymer;fast contracting actuators;operating voltages;microelectromechanical system;power-to-mass ratio;strain rates;electrolytes;}, pages = {185 - 92}, type = {article}, abstract = {Conducting polymer-based actuators are capable of producing at least 10 times more force for a given cross-sectional area (active stress) than skeletal muscle, and potentially 1000 times more, with strains typically between 1% and 10%. Low operating voltages make them particularly attractive for use in micro-electromechanical systems, in place of electrostatic and piezoelectric actuators. A drawback of conducting polymer actuators is their relatively slow speed, and hence low power-to-mass ratio. In this paper, shaped voltage pulses are applied to generate strain rates of up to 3% s-1, with peak power to mass ratios of 39 Wkg-1 of polymer, nearly matching mammalian skeletal muscle. Results are obtained from polypyrrole linear and bilayer actuators and employ both liquid and gel electrolytes}, keywords = {conducting polymers;electrolytes;microactuators;polymer structure;}, URL = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0379-6779(00)00195-8}, author = { Madden, J.D. and Cush, R.A. and Kanigan, T.S. and Hunter, I.W.} }